TITLE: Improved Capacity,
High Efficiency Cryogenic Cooling System
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: LX(R)
Amphibious Ship Program– PMS317
The technology within this
topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR),
22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related
material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the
Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls
dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals
(FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed,
and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s)
in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement. Offerors are advised
foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the
technical data under US Export Control Laws.
OBJECTIVE: Develop innovative
cryogenic cooling equipment for high temperature superconducting systems with
novel enhancements that increase cryocooler capacity, effective system cooling
capacity, and system efficiency while minimizing system cost.
DESCRIPTION: The Navy is
interested in High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable technology for High
Temperature Superconducting Degaussing (HTS DG) and future shipboard high
temperature superconducting power cable applications. These applications
require affordable and robust cryogenic cooling solutions that meet the unique
requirements for surface ship applications. Navy objectives to reduce manning
and maintenance costs demand cryogenic cooling solutions that have minimal
maintenance requirements over a 30- or 40-year ship service life.
Additionally, overall system level affordability is a key requirement for
implementation of superconducting system that leads to objectives of low
acquisition costs, higher system level efficiencies, and reduced requirements
for ship electrical power and chilled water.
For Navy HTS cable applications, gaseous helium is cooled by a cryocooler and
cryogenic heat exchanger and circulated using a helium circulation fan through
a superconducting cable which consists of HTS conductor housed in a flexible
cryostat. These cables can range from 10m-300m with operational temperature
requirements of 30 K-70 K at pressures of 10-20 bar. The temperature of the
cryogen increases in the flow direction due to heat leakage in the order of 1-3
watts per meter which can be minimized by increasing mass flow rate. However,
simply increasing mass flow rate tends to reduce the effectiveness of the
cryogenic heat exchanger. Additionally, higher volumetric flow rates lead to
higher friction flow losses that contribute additional heat load to the
cryogenic system. Improvements in overall cryo-cooling effectiveness can be
realized through heat exchanger improvements that couple the cryogen flow to the
cryocooler in a novel way. Likewise, novel approaches to cryogen circulation
can minimize cryogen heat load associated with higher-pressure drops.
Increased effective cryogenic cooling capacity will enable multiple HTS cables
to be cooled by a single cooling unit with sufficient thermal budget.
Improving capacity of the cryocooler so that multiple loops can be cooled from
a single cryogenic system will reduce the number of required cryocoolers in
procurement. The Navy desires to eliminate the dependence on chilled water and
use salt water cooling with water inlet temperatures in the range of 4ºC to
50ºC, thereby reducing the demand on the chiller system by freeing up 25-40
refrigeration tons of cooling plant margin. Complete cryocooler and circulation
system cost target of $200/watt cooling at 50 K or cryocooler only costs target
of $100/watt cooling at 50 K with integrated system weight target of 1.5
watts/kg cooling at 50 K.
State-of-the-art cryocoolers of the appropriate size scale have Carnot efficiencies
of 13-25% of Carnot at 77 K and require maintenance every 6,000 to 10,000
hours. Innovations are needed to efficiently increase the effective cryogenic
cooling capacity available for shipboard application and reduce or eliminate
routine maintenance. Increasing the Carnot efficiency of the cryocooler
reduces the electrical burden of the HTS degaussing system. The Navy is
expecting to improve efficiency to greater than 30% of Carnot at 50 K with a
heat lift greater than 300 watts. Integrated cryocooler heat exchanger
solutions are desired that will yield heat exchanger effectiveness greater than
98% at flow rates of 10 grams/sec with a cryogenic heat lift that exceeds 600
Watts at 50 K measured at the cold finger. The HTS degaussing system is predicted
to reduce the acquisition cost of a traditional LPD-17 class system degaussing
system by nearly $10m per ship.
All solutions must consider the objective of low-maintenance requirements and
induce no acoustic emission penalty while achieving a 30-year effective service
life. System should be designed to pass shipboard qualification testing
including shock (MIL-S-901D) and vibration (MIL-STD-167-1A).
PHASE I: Develop a design
concept for an improved capacity and high-efficiency cryogenic cooling system
meeting the requirements identified in the description while considering the
cryogenic and vacuum compatibility of selected materials and safety aspects in
handling the intended working pressure of the cryogen. Demonstrate technical
feasibility through modeling, analysis, and bench-top experimentation. The
Phase I Option, if awarded, will include the initial design specifications and
capabilities description to build a prototype solution in Phase II. Develop a
Phase II plan.
PHASE II: Develop, fabricate,
and deliver a prototype system based on the Phase I work and Phase II Statement
of Work (SOW) for demonstration and characterization of key parameters and
objectives. Deliver the Phase II prototype to the Navy for further performance
testing. Based on lessons learned in Phase II through the prototype
demonstration, construct a complete advanced prototype to include updated
drawings that will pass Navy qualification testing.
PHASE III DUAL USE
APPLICATIONS: Support the Navy in transitioning the technology for Navy use,
including initial production level manufacturing capabilities and providing a
fully qualified cryocooler system. If successful, the cryocooler system will
transition to the LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program. The company shall develop manufacturing
plans to facilitate transition to the Navy.
All superconducting cable systems require cryogenic cooling. The cryogenic
system being developed under this topic will be appropriately sized for many
applications requiring cryogenic cooling for the Navy and the commercial
world. In addition to HTS cables, military and commercial motors and
generators are also applications that will benefit from a high-efficiency,
low-cost, cryogenic system.
1. Kephart J., Fitzpatrick
B., Ferrara P., Pyryt M., Pienkos J., and Golda E.M. “High Temperature
Superconducting Degaussing From Feasibility Study to Fleet Adoption.” IEEE
Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pg 2229-2232,
June 2011. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5672800
2. H. Rodrigo, F. Salmhofer,
D.S. Kwag, S. Pamidi, L. Graber, D.G. Crook, S.L. Ranner, S.J. Dale, and D.
Knoll. “Electrical and thermal characterization of a novel high pressure gas
cooled DC power cable.” Cryogenics 52 (2012) 310. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011227512000501
3. Chul Han Kim, Jin-Geun
Kim, and Sastry V. Pamidi. "Cryogenic Thermal Studies on Cryocooler-Based
Helium Circulation System for Gas Cooled Superconducting Power Devices."
Cryocoolers 18, International Cryocooler Conference, Inc., Boulder, CO, 2014. http://cryocooler.org/proceedings/paper-flies/C18papers/067.pdf
Superconducting Degaussing Cables; Superconducting Power Cables; High
Temperature Superconductor; Helium Circulation Fan; Cryogenic Heat Exchanger
** TOPIC NOTICE **
These Navy Topics are part of the overall DoD 2018.1 SBIR BAA. The DoD issued its 2018.1 BAA SBIR pre-release on November 29, 2017, which opens to receive proposals on January 8, 2018, and closes February 7, 2018 at 8:00 PM ET.
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