Non-Destructive Concrete Interrogator and Strength of Materials Correlator
AREA(S): Materials/Processes, Weapons
PROGRAM: PMA 201 Precision Strike Weapons
Develop a non-invasive and non-destructive way of evaluating concrete strength
of material properties and behavior along with relevant spatial and statistical
information associated with them.
Building materials such as Conventional Strength Concrete (CSC), High Strength
Concrete (HSC) and Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) may vary
significantly from their intended design specifications in terms of their
strength of materials behavior and intrinsic material properties, along with
their spatial distribution. Deviation is to be expected given variation in
mixing materials, workmanship, and other quality assurance considerations from
the processing of these building materials. Despite these variations, the Navy
needs the ability to confirm/dispute these physical and strength of material
parameters on the as-built and cured object and provide uncertainty bounds with
respect to the original material specifications. Currently, this capability is
limited to selected laboratory strength of materials estimates, which are
seldom relatable to inherent material models useful to the Navy. Given these
challenges, there is a need for an innovative, non-destructive, and
non-invasive solution that allows the Navy to assess the different strength of
materials and intrinsic properties associated with cured and/or previously
built concrete structures.
The solution must be capable of assessing objects made with concrete (CSC, HSC,
and UHPC) that may take the form of complex geometrical structures, slabs,
columns/cylinders, cubes, concrete cores, and other bulk geometries to include
full sized structures. It must be a combination of non-invasive and
non-destructive hardware sensors and corresponding analysis software capable of
evaluating a concrete sample/object and confirm the strength of material
properties along with other intrinsic properties of said object with associated
uncertainties and spatial distributions. Intrinsic properties of interest
include, but are not limited to: density, sound speed, bulk compressibility,
and Specific Heat Capacity at constant volume. Strength of material properties
include, but are not limited to: Bulk, Young’s and Shear modulus, Poisson’s
ratio, Yield Strength, Ultimate Strength, and Unconfined Compressive Strength.
The design must be clearly focused on quantifying the data needed to populate
property values useful in defining an Equation of State, Strength of Material,
and other Constitutive/Damage models such as that defined by the Holmquist
Johnson Cook (HJC) Concrete. All data must be useful for inclusion into
high-performance hydrocode material model definitions and be outputted as
variable pair values data in a clear text file along with a graphical depiction
through the software solution.
The proposed solution must be able to operate in two potential scenarios—an
internal laboratory assessment and a field deployment whereby the out-of-laboratory
hardware/sensor solution must be portable (total size and mass not to exceed 6
cubic feet and 20lbm). Additionally, it must be capable of being operated by
one test engineer in the field. The field-capable hardware/sensor solution
must be ruggedized to applicable Military Standards (similar but not limited to
MIL-STD 810) and be able to temporarily store all of the data sensed/captured
internally during the sample’s evaluation phase. Sensing of the physical and
strength of material property data during an out-of-laboratory scenario must
not take longer than 15 minutes per measurement and allow for a quick assembly
and disassembly time of not more than 15 minutes respectively. A visual or
graphical depiction of the data collection and completion process must be
included in the proposed solution for both the laboratory and field systems.
Data collected in this field deployment scenario and parameters computed
therefore must be within 15% of those collected and parameters computed in a laboratory
for the same material/sample/core. No hardware/sensor size nor weight
constraint are instituted for the laboratory scenario allowing for a higher
fidelity assessment of the data collected therein.
The hardware/software calibration features must be available prior to a
sample’s evaluation phase for both envisioned scenarios and take no longer than
30 minutes for both. For both scenarios, the hardware/sensor solution must be
able to communicate to a portable laptop computer and allow compatibility with
Windows and Linux Operating Systems (OS).
The software/analysis compliment for the solution must be able to analyze
concrete objects (or sections of an object) that vary in total mass from 1lbm
to 200 tons and thicknesses ranging from 5 inches to 25ft for the field
deployment scenario, while the laboratory sample scenario must be able to
analyze similar components ranging in total mass from 1lbm to 100lbm, and
thicknesses ranging from 5 inches to 4ft.
The software/analysis solution must process the data collected in either
scenario, and deliver results within 30 minutes allowing for a visual output of
the data with information regarding the spatial distribution (two- or
three-dimensional) and uncertainty bounds/calculations. The solution must
include clear instructions (e.g., user’s manual or similar) covering
calibration, setup/configuration, and post-processing of the data collected in
order to properly obtain desired results.
I: Identify and evaluate potential technologies/methodologies applicable for
the solution. Demonstrate the feasibility of a preliminary design of the
hardware, software, and methodology solution, including identification of
necessary resources. Create a preliminary engineering development plan along
with an evaluation of potential numerical methodologies and calibration plans
to include potential ruggedization of the field-deployable version. In
addition, create a proposed Graphical User Interface (GUI) design for the
analysis software, analysis logic flow, and computational development plan. An
assessment on which of the parameters are useful in populating a HJC-Concrete
material model would be quantified, and an evaluation of the methodology used
in ascertaining the intrinsic and strength of material/constitutive/damage
properties. The Phase I effort will include prototype plans to be developed
under Phase II.
II: Develop a working prototype to include applicable testing of the suite of
hardware/sensors. Demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution in both
in-field and laboratory scenarios with comparison of the output data from using
more traditional strength of material concrete testing. Complete analysis
software and demonstrate in the post-processing of various concrete
samples/objects that range in size. Demonstrate spatial assessment of the
strength of materials as well as other physical properties useful in building
an HJC-Concrete material model along with the establishment of uncertainty
bounds on the data/model values. Deliver source code, design specifications,
engineering layouts, configuration, and user’s manual for Government
III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Transition hardware and software solution to the
U.S. Navy for use in daily analysis of concrete structures/objects. Receive
feedback from users and release updates addressing feature requests and bug
fixes. Enhance the visual and graphical capabilities useful in future
assessments. Document and incorporate enhancements into solution updates.
Complete a Verification and Validation report for the entire solution along
with its associated modules/packages. Deliver updated hardware and software
solution along with final user’s manual. Commercial applications involve DoD
contractors supporting the Tri-Service community, the Department of Homeland
Security, the U.S. Coast Guard, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Federal
Highway Administration supporting their different concrete quality assurance
and evaluation efforts.
Wight, James K. and MacGregor, James G. “Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and
Design, 7th Edition.” http://www.chegg.com/textbooks/reinforced-concrete-7th-edition-9780133485967-013348596x
“Guidebook on non-destructive testing of concrete structures.” Training course
series No. 17. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2002. http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TCS-17_web.pdf
Helal J., Sofi, M. and Mendis, P. “Non-destructive testing of concrete: A
review of methods.” Special Issue of the Electronic Journal of Structural
Engineering 14(1) 2015. http://www.ejse.org/Archives/Fulltext/2015-1/2015-1-9.pdf
Holmquist, Johnson and Cook. 14th International Symposium on Ballistics, 1993
Vol.2, pages 591-600.; Warhead Mechanisms and Terminal Ballistics. 1993
KEYWORDS: Concrete; Ultra-high Performance
Concrete; Model Development; Noninvasive; Strength of Materials; Hydrocode
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