Proportional Thruster for Navy Hot-Gas Control System
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: TRIDENT
II (D5) ACAT I
The technology within this
topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR),
22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related
material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the
Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls
dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals
(FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed,
and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s)
in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the Announcement. Offerors are advised
foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to
the technical data under US Export Control Laws.
OBJECTIVE: Develop and
evaluate advanced, innovative concepts for proportional thrusters for
application to the Navy Trident II (D5) strategic missile post-boost control
system (PBCS). The proportional thruster design and material selection must
advance the state-of-the-art to meet Navy goals for burn-time duration (up to
1,000 seconds) while being compatible with flame temperatures and the chemical
environment of D5 PBCS operation. Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) will make
available the baseline PBCS System Design Requirements Document and applicable
baseline Weapon Specifications upon request. Requests will be in accordance
with process defined in SSPINST 5540.2D.
DESCRIPTION: In the 21st
century, advances have been made in the area of proportional thrusters for
solid propellant, hot-gas controls systems by Navy, Air Force, Missile Defense
Agency (MDA), and National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA)
Hot-gas controls systems must be constructed using materials that are
thermally, structurally, and chemically compatible with the propellant gases.
Higher propellant gas temperatures are a common feature of higher energy
control systems. In general, these conditions prevent the use of traditional
refractory metals because their strengths diminish significantly with
increasing temperature. Phase stability diagrams shed light on microstructural
effects, and are calculated from thermodynamic predictions of what phases will
exist at a specific temperature and levels of oxygen and carbon in the gas.
Using gas thermochemistry calculations, phase stability diagrams predict what
phases will be stable given the gas composition. The ratio of carbon monoxide
to carbon dioxide is applied to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the
system. At a given temperature, a gas mixture with a lower ratio of carbon
monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO:CO2) has a more severe oxidizing environment;
this enables one to create oxidizing environments in the laboratory that
approximate the oxidizing environments of a range of gas generator propellants,
including Navy 1.1 propellant. This is used to conduct
3,000° Fahrenheit testing of thruster material
compatibility in an oxidizing environment representative of propellant
combustion products. Material science principles must be applied in the
development of a hot-gas component. Understanding the environment, time at
temperature and pressure, adjacent materials, gas chemistry interactions,
thermodynamics, and kinetics is paramount to selecting a material that will
survive and provide mission success.
The Navy SSP development of additional PBCS valves is expected to begin in the
early-to-mid-2020’s; this SBIR topic will reduce the technical risk of
proportional thrusters before the Navy SSP development program begins and
positions the program to make an informed decision on whether to re-create the
D5 PBCS valves or replace them with proportional thrusters. The proportional
thruster design and material selection must advance the state of the art to
meet Navy goals for burn-time duration (up to 1,000 seconds) while being
compatible with flame temperatures (3,000° Fahrenheit) and the chemical
environment of Navy Class 1.1 gas generator combustion products. The
combination of extended burn time and compatibility with high flame temperature
and oxidizing combustion products presents an extreme technical challenge for
which development of innovative technologies is required. The proportional thruster design and material selection
must advance the state-of-the-art to meet Navy goals for burn-time duration (up
to 1,000 seconds) while being compatible with flame temperatures (3,000°
Fahrenheit) and the chemical environment of Navy Class 1.1 gas generator
combustion products. The combination of extended burn time and
compatibility with high flame temperature and oxidizing combustion products
presents an extreme technical challenge for which development of innovative
technologies is required. Strategic Systems Programs will make available the
technical data regarding the PBCS gas generator's combustion products upon
request. Request will be in accordance with process defined in SSPINST
PHASE I: Develop technical
concepts for proportional thrusters for solid-propellant, hot-gas control systems.
Conduct top-level trade studies, design concepts, model performance, and
perform key tests to transition from Phase I to a Phase II.
Work with Navy SSP to establish key technical requirements for burn-time
duration, thrust versus time, flame temperature compatibility, and
compatibility with the combustion products of Navy PBCS gas generator
Use model-based engineering (MBE) techniques to develop technical concepts of
designs for proportional thrusters. Develop and apply technologies to meet the
thermal-management challenge of a long-duration burn time (1,000 seconds) with
flame temperatures approximately 3,000° Fahrenheit. Conduct top-level thermal
and structural analyses of the MBE-generated design.
Develop a proportional-thruster performance model for attaining the thrust
versus time profile required for Navy PBCS application.
Identity risks to the technical approach and develop plans to mitigate those
risks for Phase II. Elucidate the technical approach to the thermal management
challenge and risk of a long-duration burn time (1,000 seconds) with flame
temperatures of 3,000° Fahrenheit.
PHASE II: Design and
fabricate a breadboard, flight-design proportional thruster that will include
attach points for integration with the gas generator. Conduct a Systems
Requirements Review (SRR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) with Navy SSP.
Conduct laboratory experiments and/or modeling as needed to verify the proposed
breadboard concept for proportional thrusters. Conduct material compatibility
and hot-gas testing of key components for the breadboard concept for the
proportional thruster. Note: The small business may subcontract this work to a
laboratory capable of conducting hot-gas tests at 3,000° Fahrenheit in an
oxidizing environment that emulates that of D5 gas generator combustion
Conduct a static-fire test of the flight-design, breadboard proportional
thruster at the small business facility. The test will be designed to run the
full-duration of 1,000 seconds using a standard, work-horse gas generator and a
thrust-time duty cycle that is representative of the D5 PBCS. Conduct a
post-test evaluation of the breadboard proportional thruster, write a Test
Report, and conduct a post-test review with Navy SSP.
PHASE III DUAL USE
APPLICATIONS: Develop a prototype flight design concept for a proportional
thruster using model-based engineering techniques. The prototype flight design
will meet technical goals for burn-time duration and compatibility with D5
flame temperatures and combustion products.
Refine the breadboard design based on results and lessons learned from Phase II
static-fire tests. Fabricate a prototype flight design proportional thruster.
The prototype design will include attach points for integration with the gas
generator. Conduct a Critical Design Review (CDR) with Navy SSP.
Provide a prototype proportional thruster for testing with a Navy SSP-provided
gas generator and associated test components at a Government facility (e.g.,
the Naval Air Weapons Center (NAWC) at China Lake, CA). Perform post-test
analysis of the fired proportional thruster to assess erosion of thruster
materials and compatibility with the flame temperature and combustion products
of the test. Post-test analysis should include: Pre- and post-test component
weights, macro photos, and dimensional analysis. Following these
non-destructive measurements, metallographic sections will be prepared and
analyzed at low and high magnification. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
will also be used to understand oxidation and microstructural changes of
thruster materials the occurred during the static-fire test.
There is the potential that proportional valve technology developed on this
SBIR project could be adapted for use on proportional thrusters for NASA and/or
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Oscar Biblarz. “Rocket Propulsion Elements.” Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Inc., 2010. 8th Edition, p. 236-9. ISBN 978-0-470-08024-5. https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Propulsion-Elements-George-Sutton/dp/0470080248
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the Performance Characteristics of Blunt Body Pintle Nozzle.” 49th
AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, June 2013. https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2013-4080
3. Ponzo, J. et al. “Long
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Conference; August 2009. http://enu.kz/repository/2009/AIAA-2009-5483.pdf
4. “Systems and Software
Engineering – Systems Life Cycle Processes.” IEEE 15288 (2015). https://www.iso.org/standard/63711.html
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Application of Systems Engineering on Defense Programs.” IEEE 15288.1 (2014). https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/15288.1-2014.html
6. “Standard for Technical
Reviews and Audits on Defense Programs.” IEEE 15288.2 (2014). https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/15288.2-2014.html
7. “Department of Standard
Practices: Technical Data Packages.” MIL-STD-31000 Rev. A.” http://22.214.171.124/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/MIL-STD-31000A-released-on-ASSIST-3-13-2013.pdf
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9. “Policy and Procedures for
Security Review Requests for the Public Release of Unclassified Information
Generated Under the Director Strategic Systems Programs, SSPINST 5540.2
Revision D. http://126.96.36.199/ESSPINST/
Thruster; Pintle Valve; Refractory Metals; Hot-Gas Control System; Navy
** TOPIC NOTICE **
These Navy Topics are part of the overall DoD 2018.1 SBIR BAA. The DoD issued its 2018.1 BAA SBIR pre-release on November 29, 2017, which opens to receive proposals on January 8, 2018, and closes February 7, 2018 at 8:00 PM ET.
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