High Heat Flux Thermal Management Technologies for Aluminum Decks
Navy SBIR 2019.2 - Topic N192-127
ONR - Ms. Lore-Anne Ponirakis - loreanne.ponirakis@navy.mil
Opens: May 31, 2019 - Closes: July 1, 2019 (8:00 PM ET)


TITLE: High Heat Flux Thermal Management Technologies for Aluminum Decks


TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO SHIPS, PMS 385 - Strategic & Theater Sealift

OBJECTIVE: Exploit thermal management technologies, which incorporate a thermally and functionally stable non- skid surface, to form an integrated Flight Deck Thermal Management System (FDTMS) that mitigates the thermo- mechanical structural impact of Naval aircraft on aluminum flight decks.


DESCRIPTION: A successful FDTMS has been demonstrated on a steel deck with a V-22 aircraft, but the current solution is unsatisfactory for an aluminum deck interfacing with a higher heat flux generating aircraft. This topic seeks to explore alternative technologies that can spread, conduct, and/or dissipate heat with minimal structural thickness and minimal weight impact (potentially integrate with ship structures), are compatible with Navy non- skids, avoid generation of debris/products causing foreign object debris, and offer an affordable, durable, system capable of mitigating flight deck temperatures below threshold temperatures that alter aluminum mechanical properties, avoids damage to non-skids, and prevents aluminum deck damage. Without any impact from aircraft, the flight deck will be affected by its operational location and could have prevailing deck temperatures ranging from subzero temperatures (< 18°C) to about 65°C. The thermal management system may be installed above-deck and/or incorporated within the deck, but must not negatively impact any aircraft or deck operations.


PHASE I: Explore heat transfer technologies capable of mitigating thermal damage caused by exhaust plumes on aluminum decks from Naval and Marine Corps tilt-rotor aircraft and develop heat transfer models. Evaluate the ability of several thermal management systems to dissipate and spread heat with minimal thickness and minimal weight impact to the candidate ship and the ability to carry structural load and meet survivability requirements with and without applied Navy-approved non-skid coatings. Down-selection will be based on the ability to meet thermal and structural metrics such as: 1) heat capacity per unit area; 2) rate of heat dissipation per unit time; 3) ability to keep the deck temperature below that which would initiate degradation of the aluminum alloy deck structure; 4) mechanical robustness to handle aircraft weight; 5) resistance to aging from long-term thermal and/or mechanical effects; 6) resistance to fatigue from extreme temperature and shock conditions; and 7) system compatibility and adhesion to Navy metallic non-skids. The offeror needs to develop and use thermal models that confirm the viability of each thermal management technology option and how the technology will mitigate the aircraft heat. Describe a method to securely integrate the thermal management system with the ship and minimize the overall weight of the thermal management system. Technologies may include above or within deck solutions. Develop a Phase I Option and an initial Phase II plan.


PHASE II: Construct a small-scale thermal management system that will be tested per scale for its effectiveness in mitigating heat as a function of time; and in keeping deck temperatures below the threshold that cause degradation of the aluminum alloy deck structure. The thermal management system design must also show that it can be integrated with the ship and can be maintained over all time scales and flight operational profiles. Demonstrate that the system is capable of withstanding the impact of flight and deck logistical operations without loss of the thermal and mechanical performance of the thermal management system. If an above deck solution is chosen, demonstrate a fail-safe method of attachment to the deck without negative impact on flight operations. Produce a thermal management system that is compatible to shipyard construction practices. Update ship integrators, shipyards, and NAVSEA on progress.


PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Build and test a ¼ scale thermal management system for heat mitigation effectiveness, ability to be integrated to a simulated ship structure, resistance to anticipated mechanical stresses from deck operations and the ship itself, effects of service temperatures and weather, and compatibility with Navy metallic non-skid coatings. Work with Navy shipyards, NAVSEA, NAVAIR, and the Marine Corps to minimize

potential conflicts. If successful, ONR would propose a Future Naval Capability (FNC) to build and integrate a full- size flight deck thermal management system to be demonstrated on an Expeditionary Fast Transport (EFP) or other aluminum decked ship using available V-22s for takeoffs and landings.



1.   Reddy, J. N. and Gartling, D. K. “The Finite Element Method in Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics.” 3rd Edition, CRC Press, New York. http://mechanics.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/10-The-Finite-Element-Method-in- Heat-Transfer-and-Fluid-Dynamics.pdf


2.   Minkowycz , W.J., Sparrow, E.M., Schneider, G.E., and Pletcher, R.H. “Handbook of Numerical Heat Transfer.” Wiley-Interscience, New York (1988). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9780470172599.fmatter


3.   Sidebotham, G. “Heat Transfer Modeling: An Inductive Approach.” Springer international Publishing, Switzerland (2015). https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319145136


4.   Kumar, V., Gangacharyulu, D., and Tathgir, R. G. “Heat Transfer Studies of a Heat Pipe.” Journal Heat Transfer Engineering, vol. 28(11), 2007, pp. 954-965. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gangacharyulu_Dasaroju/publication/244588248_Heat_Transfer_Studies_of_a

_Heat_Pipe/links/564aaeeb08ae127ff986baf5/Heat-Transfer-Studies-of-a-Heat-Pipe.pdf?origin=publication_detail KEYWORDS: Heat Pipes; Phase Change; Heat Transfer; Fluid Dynamics; Convection; Conductance


David Shifler





Carrie Davis





These Navy Topics are part of the overall DoD 2019.2 SBIR BAA. The DoD issued its 2019.2 BAA SBIR pre-release on May 2, 2019, which opens to receive proposals on May 31, 2019, and closes July 1, 2019 at 8:00 PM ET.

Between May 2, 2019 and May 30, 2019 you may communicate directly with the Topic Authors (TPOC) to ask technical questions about the topics. During these dates, their contact information is listed above. For reasons of competitive fairness, direct communication between proposers and topic authors is not allowed starting May 31, 2019
when DoD begins accepting proposals for this BAA.

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